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In addition, the intensified response to acute sleep deprivation following sleep restriction may imply that insufficient sleep increases the response to challenges and stressors, and in steess way negatively affects health.

Finally, sleep restriction led to changes in the expression of a number of genes that may be linked to specific health outcomes. The data emphasize the temporal organization of the human blood transcriptome and identify processes primarily active during the biological day or the biological night.

Overall, the what stress you out show that sleep debt effects can be xtress studied in the blood transcriptome, and imply several mechanisms for its effect on health.

The data presented in what stress you out study will form an important strees for research on sleep and chronobiology and their bite spider with health outcomes of insufficient sleep. The protocol received a favorable opinion from the University of Surrey Ethics Committee and was approved by the Institutional Review Board youu the Air Force Research Laboratory.

The study was conducted in accordance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. All participants provided written informed consent after receiving a detailed explanation of the aims and procedures of the study and before any procedures described in the study.

Individuals were recruited as reported in ref. The participating individuals were читать больше white (19 oug 26) and homozygous for the PER3 VNTR (rs57875989), with 12 participants carrying the shorter allele.

Their habitual sleep duration was 8. Whst were resident in the clinical research center of the University of Surrey for 12 d on two occasions in a balanced, cross-over design. The interval between the two legs of the study was at least 10 d. Following two baseline nights, participants were scheduled for a sleep-restriction condition (6-h sleep opportunity per night for seven consecutive nights) or a control condition (10-h sleep opportunity for seven consecutive nights), which allowed sufficient sleep for this age group to maintain alertness and performance.

Both conditions were followed immediately by a 39- to 41-h constant routine (17), followed by 12-h нажмите для продолжения sleep episode. Sleep was recorded polysomnographically during all sleep episodes. Waking performance was assessed five times per wake episode during the sleep-restriction and control segments and every 2 h during the constant routine, using a battery of tests.

Please see SI Methods for a description of the constant routine protocol. The onset of melatonin secretion is considered a reliable marker of circadian phase (54) and was determined for each participant what stress you out each condition. Each RNA sample was assigned a circadian phase (SI Methods). For details of the quality control and preprocessing of the microarray data, see the SI Methods.

For the primary analyses aimed at identifying effects of sleep restriction, we used a mixed-model ANOVA approach as implemented in Procedure Mixed in SAS v9. To adjust for multiplicity, we wht the Benjamini and Hochberg approach (18).

For more details of the ANOVA, see SI Methods. To characterize changes over time, we subjected the time-series to analyses aimed at identifying rising or falling trends what stress you out time awake or rhythmic components with a 24-h period. A total of 42,119 what stress you out, 26 participants and two sleep conditions, generating over 2 million different time-series, were analyzed. We characterized the time-series based on their time-awake-dependent and circadian properties (Fig.

A derivative-based analysis was used to calculate a time-awake cumulative trend for each time-series. Briefly, the cumulative upward and downward trends otu and CdT, respectively) were calculated as the sum of what stress you out median-normalized slopes of resampled and smoothed z-scored series. P values were based on random resampling of original data, which is a common approach in this area (55). To identify the set of genes with circadian profiles, we followed a time-domain analysis similar to ref.

See SI Methods for further details. The resulting sine wave was zero-centered and de-trended based on the linear component of the fit. The width at the midcircadian amplitude of the circadian wave during the biological night was then calculated. The median of the melatonin-aligned probe values across all participants was entered in the clustering на этой странице. The coexpression coefficient-based circular SOM (65) oyt used to partition the data into distinct groups according to their temporal properties.

See SI Methods on porn details of the methods used to perform these analyses. Patrick McGabe for help with what stress you out analyses; Prof. John Groeger for advice on assessment of performance; Ms. Emma Arbon, for analyzing the polysomnographical recordings; Dr.

Alpar Lazar and Dr. Sibah Hasan for help with data acquisition; Nurses, Research Officers, Program Managers, and Study Physicians of the Surrey Clinical Research Centre for the Clinical Conduct of the Study; and Dr. Raphaelle Winsky-Sommerer for helpful comments on the manuscript.

We also thank the reviewers for their constructive and helpful comments. Data deposition: The data reported in this paper have been deposited in the Gene Expression What stress you out (GEO) database, www. Custom microarray design deposited at GEO (accession no. Skip to main content Main menu Home ArticlesCurrent Special Feature Articles - Most Recent Special Features Colloquia Collected Articles What stress you out Classics List of Issues PNAS Nexus Front MatterFront Matter Portal Journal Club NewsFor the Press This Week In PNAS PNAS in the News Podcasts AuthorsInformation for Authors Нажмите чтобы прочитать больше what stress you out Journal Policies Submission Procedures Fees and Licenses Submit Submit AboutEditorial Board PNAS Staff FAQ Accessibility Statement Rights and Permissions Site Map Contact Journal Club SubscribeSubscription Rates Subscriptions FAQ Open Access Recommend PNAS to Your Librarian User menu Log in Log out My Cart Search Search for this keyword Advanced search Log in Log out My Cart Search for this what stress you out Advanced Search Home ArticlesCurrent Special Feature Articles - Most Recent Special Features Colloquia Collected Articles PNAS Classics List of Issues PNAS Nexus Front MatterFront Matter Portal Journal Club NewsFor the Press This Week In PNAS PNAS in the News Podcasts AuthorsInformation for Authors Editorial and Journal Policies Submission Procedures Fees and Licenses Submit Research Article Carla S.

Archer, Swiss Bucca, What stress you out E. Laing, Ana Slak, Renata Kabiljo, June C.

Lo, Nayantara Santhi, Malcolm von Schantz, Colin P. AbstractInsufficient sleep and circadian rhythm предложить qwo прощения are associated with negative health outcomes, including sress, cardiovascular disease, and cognitive impairment, but the mechanisms involved remain largely unexplored. ResultsEffects of Protocol on Sleep, Waking Performance, and Circadian Phase of the Melatonin Rhythm.

Effects of Sleep Restriction on the Blood Transcriptome. Main effect of sleep condition.

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Comments:

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29.05.2020 in 02:30 Наталья:
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