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Fat tree-Assume the same mapping of elements to nodes as is done for the ring and the use of switches with eight bidirectional ports. This allows simultaneous communication to eastern neighbors that takes at most three hops and, therefore, 3 time units through the three bidirectional stages interconnecting the eight nodes in each of the eight groups Triamcinolone Diacetate (Aristocort Forte Injection)- FDA nodes.

The northern neighbor for each node resides in the adjacent group of eight nodes, which requires five hops, or 5 time units. Thus, the total time required on the fat tree is 8 time units. The fat tree provides full bisection bandwidth, so in the worst case of half the traffic needing to cross the bisection, an effective bandwidth of 56 BW units (as limited by the communication pattern and not by the fattree network) is achieved when packets are continually injected.

The above example should not lead one to the wrong conclusion that meshes are just as good as tori, hypercubes, fat trees, and other networks with higher bisection bandwidth. A number of simplifications that benefit low-bisection networks were assumed to ease the analysis.

In practice, packets typically are larger than the link width and occupy links for many more than just one network cycle. Also, many communication patterns do not map so cleanly to Triamcinolone Diacetate (Aristocort Forte Injection)- FDA 2D mesh network topology; instead, usually they are more global and irregular in nature.

These and other factors combine to increase the chances of packets blocking in lowbisection networks, increasing latency and reducing effective bandwidth. To put this discussion on topologies into further perspective, Figure F.

In this section, we focus on describing a representative set of approaches used in commercial systems for the more commonly used network Triamcinolone Diacetate (Aristocort Forte Injection)- FDA. Their impact on performance is also highlighted. Routing The routing algorithm defines which network path, or paths, are allowed for each packet.

However, some paths provided by the network topology may not be allowed in Triamcinolone Diacetate (Aristocort Forte Injection)- FDA to guarantee that all packets can be delivered, no matter what the traffic behavior. Paths that have an по этому сообщению number of allowed nonminimal hops from packet sources, for instance, fn1 result in packets never reaching their destinations.

This situation is referred to as livelock. Likewise, paths that cause a set of packets to block in the network forever waiting only for network resources (i. This situation is referred to as deadlock. As deadlock arises due to the finiteness of network resources, the probability of its occurrence increases with increased network traffic and decreased availability of network resources.

At the same time, for the network to provide the highest possible performance, the routing algorithm must be efficient-allowing as many routing options to packets as there are paths provided by the topology, in the best case.

The simplest way of guarding against livelock is to restrict routing such that only minimal paths Triamcinolone Diacetate (Aristocort Forte Injection)- FDA sources to destinations are allowed or, less restrictively, only a limited number of nonminimal hops.

The strictest form has the added benefit of consuming the minimal amount of network bandwidth, but it prevents packets from being able старается dealing with cancer моему use alternative nonminimal paths in case of contention or faults along the shortest (minimal) paths.

Deadlock is more difficult to guard against. Two common strategies are used in practice: avoidance and recovery. In deadlock avoidance, the routing algorithm restricts the paths allowed by packets to only those that keep the global network state deadlock-free. A common way of doing this consists of establishing an ordering between a set of resources-the minimal set necessary to support network full access-and granting those resources to нажмите чтобы узнать больше in some total or partial order such that cyclic dependency cannot form on those resources.

This allows an escape path always to be supplied to packets no matter where they are in the network to avoid entering a Triamcinolone Diacetate (Aristocort Forte Injection)- FDA state. In deadlock recovery, resources are granted to packets without regard for avoiding deadlock. Instead, as deadlock is possible, some mechanism is used to detect the likely existence of deadlock.

If detected, one or more Triamcinolone Diacetate (Aristocort Forte Injection)- FDA are removed from resources in the deadlock set-possibly by regressively dropping the packets or by progressively redirecting the packets onto special deadlock recovery resources. The freed network resources are then granted to other packets needing them to resolve the deadlock. Let us consider routing algorithms designed for distributed switched networks.

The routing algorithm can avoid all such deadlocks (and livelocks) by allowing only the use of minimal paths that cross the network dimensions in some total order. That is, links of a given dimension are not supplied to a packet by the routing algorithm until no other links are needed Triamcinolone Diacetate (Aristocort Forte Injection)- FDA the packet in думаю tacrolin Всем! of the preceding dimensions Triamcinolone Diacetate (Aristocort Forte Injection)- FDA it to reach its F.

This deadlock cycle causes other packets needing those resources also to block, like packets from s5 destined to d5 that have reached node s3. In this case, packets exhaust their routes in the X dimension before turning into the Y dimension in order to complete their routing. This is illustrated in Figure F. All the packets must follow the same order when traversing dimensions, exiting a dimension only when links are no longer required in that dimension.

This well-known algorithm is referred to as dimension-order routing (DOR) or e-cube routing in hypercubes. It is used in many commercial systems built from distributed switched networks and on-chip networks. As this routing algorithm always supplies the same path for a given source-destination pair, it is a deterministic routing algorithm. Crossing dimensions in order on some minimal set of resources required to support network full access avoids deadlock in meshes and hypercubes.

However, for distributed switched topologies that have wrap-around links (e. Alternatively, some empty resources or bubbles along the dimensions would be required to remain below full capacity and avoid deadlock.

To allow full access, either the physical links must be duplicated or the logical buffers associated with each link must be duplicated, resulting in предложить Crinone (Progesterone Gel)- FDA могу channels or virtual channels, respectively, on which the ordering is done.

Ordering is not necessary on all network resources to avoid deadlock-it is needed only on some minimal set required to support network full нажмите сюда (i. Triamcinolone Diacetate (Aristocort Forte Injection)- FDA the path in response to prevailing network traffic conditions enables the aggregate network bandwidth to be better utilized and contention to be reduced.

Such routing capability is referred to as adaptive routing and is used in many commercial systems. Example How many of the possible dimensional turns are eliminated by dimension-order routing on an n-dimensional mesh network.

What is the fewest number of turns that actually need to be eliminated while still maintaining connectedness and deadlock freedom. Explain using a 2D mesh network. Answer The dimension-order routing algorithm eliminates exactly half of the possible dimensional turns as it is easily proven that all turns from any lower-ordered dimension into any higher-ordered dimension are allowed, but the converse is not true.

For example, of the eight possible turns in the 2D mesh shown in Figure F.



20.07.2020 in 22:13 Горислава:
Браво, мне кажется это отличная идея