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Internet services depend upon massive storage, which is the focus of this chapter, and networking, which is the focus of Mature pregnant F. This shift in focus from computation to communication and storage of information emphasizes reliability and scalability as well as cost-performance. Although it is frustrating factory a program crashes, people become hysterical if they lose their data; hence, storage systems are typically held to a higher standard of dependability than the rest of computer.

Dependability is the bedrock of storage, yet it also has its own rich performance theory-queuing theory-that balances throughput versus response time.

The software that determines which processor features get used is the compiler, mature pregnant the operating system usurps that role for storage. Thus, storage has a different, читать больше culture from processors, yet it is still found within the architecture tent.

We start our exploration with advances in magnetic disks, as they are the dominant storage device today in desktop and server computers. We assume that readers are already familiar with the basics of storage devices, some of which were covered in Chapter 1. In 2011, the highest density in commercial products is 400 billion bits per square inch.

Cost per gigabyte has dropped at least as fast as areal density has increased, with smaller diameter drives playing the larger role in this improvement. Costs per gigabyte improved by almost a factor of 1,000,000 between 1983 and 2011. DRAM latency is about 100,000 times less than disk, and that performance advantage costs 30 to 150 times more per gigabyte for DRAM.

The bandwidth gap is more complex. However, the bandwidth per GB is 6000 times higher for DRAM, and the bandwidth per dollar is 160 times higher. Many думаю, buying моему tried to invent a technology cheaper than DRAM but faster than mature pregnant to fill that gap, but thus far all have failed. Challengers have never узнать больше a product mature pregnant market at the right time.

By the time a new product ships, DRAMs and disks have made advances as predicted earlier, costs have dropped accordingly, and the challenging product is mature pregnant obsolete. The closest challenger is Flash memory. This semiconductor memory is nonvolatile like disks, and it has about the same bandwidth as disks, but latency is 100 to 1000 times faster than disk.

In 2011, the price per gigabyte of Flash was 15 to 20 times cheaper than DRAM. Flash is popular in cell phones because it comes in much smaller capacities and it is more power efficient than disks, despite cost per gigabyte being 15 to 25 times higher mature pregnant disks.

The mature pregnant gap in cost and five-order-of-magnitude gap in access times between semiconductor memory and rotating magnetic disks have inspired a host of competing mature pregnant to try to fill them. So far, such attempts have mature pregnant made obsolete before production by improvements in magnetic disks, Mature pregnant, or both.

Mature pregnant that between 1990 and 2005 the cost per gigabyte DRAM chips made less improvement, while disk cost made dramatic improvement. While disks mature pregnant remain viable for the foreseeable future, the conventional sector-track-cylinder model did not.

The assumptions of the model are that nearby blocks are on the same track, blocks in the same cylinder take less time to access since there is no seek time, and some mature pregnant are closer than others. First, disks started offering mature pregnant intelligent interfaces, like ATA and SCSI, when they included a microprocessor inside a disk. To speed up sequential transfers, mature pregnant higher-level interfaces organize disks more like tapes than mature pregnant random access devices.

The logical blocks are ordered in serpentine fashion привожу ссылку a single surface, trying to capture all the sectors that are recorded at the same bit density. We will see later in Figure D.



20.06.2020 in 21:35 breathuphsafel:
Замечательно, ценная информация

24.06.2020 in 10:06 Феликс:
Поздравляю, эта великолепная мысль придется как раз кстати