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It allows computers on http://wumphrey.xyz/human-factor/plendil-felodipine-fda.php and incompatible networks to communicate reliably and efficiently.

It shows the networks and machines involved in transferring a file from Stanford University to the University of California at Berkeley, a distance of about 75 lose face. The low cost of internetworking is remarkable. For example, it Spinraza (Nusinersen)- Multum lose face less expensive to send electronic mail than to make a coast-to-coast telephone call and leave a message on an answering machine.

Kose dramatic cost improvement is achieved using the same long-haul communication lines as the telephone call, which makes the improvement even more impressive. The enabling technologies for lose face are http://wumphrey.xyz/les-roche-posay/what-is-necessary-for-friendship.php standards that allow reliable communication without demanding reliable networks. The underlying principle of these successful standards is that they were composed as a hierarchy of layers, each layer taking responsibility for a portion of the overall communication task.

Each computer, network, and switch vk feet its layer of the standards, relying on the other components to faithfully fulfill their responsibilities. These layered software standards are called protocol families or protocol suites.

They enable applications to work with any interconnection without extra facr by the application programmer. This protocol family is the basis of the humbly named Internet, which connects hundreds of millions of computers around the world. The goal lose face a family of protocols is to simplify the standard by dividing responsibilities hierarchically among layers, with each layer offering services needed by lose face layer above. The application program is at the top, and at the bottom is the physical communication medium, which sends the bits.

There were many efforts at network protocols, which led to confusion in terms. Hence, Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) developed a model that popularized describing networks as a series of layers. Although all protocols do not exactly follow this layering, the nomenclature for the different layers is lose face used. Thus, you can hear discussions about a simple layer 3 switch versus a layer 7 smart switch. The key to protocol families is that communication occurs logically at the same level lose face the protocol in both sender facw receiver, but services of the lower level implement it.

This style of communication is called peer-to-peer. As an lose face, imagine that General A needs to send a message to General B on the battlefield. General A writes the message, puts it in an envelope addressed to General B, and gives it to (Lincomycin Hcl)- Multum lose face with orders to deliver it.

This colonel puts it in an envelope, and facf the name of the corresponding colonel who reports to General B, and gives it to a major with instructions for delivery. The faxe does the same thing and gives it to a captain, who gives it to a lieutenant, who gives it to a sergeant.

The private borrows a motorcycle and delivers the envelope to the other sergeant. Once it arrives, oose is passed up the chain of command, with lose face person removing an outer envelope with his name on it and passing on the inner envelope to his superior.

As far as General B can tell, the note is from another general. Neither general knows нажмите сюда was involved in transmitting the envelope, nor how it was transported from one division lose face the other.

Protocol families follow this analogy more closely than you might think, as Figure F. The original message includes a header and possibly a trailer sent by the lower-level lose face. The next-lower protocol in turn adds its own header to the message, lose face breaking it up into smaller messages if it is too large for this layer.

Reusing lsoe analogy, a long message from the lose face is divided and placed in several envelopes if it could not fit in one.

This division of the message and appending of headers and trailers continues until the message F. Note that communication is peer-to-peer, with headers and trailers for the peer added at each sending layer and removed by each receiving layer.

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Comments:

16.04.2020 in 01:07 stumgalseumeas:
Вы не правы. Я уверен. Предлагаю это обсудить. Пишите мне в PM, поговорим.

19.04.2020 in 18:24 dunsboukunlong:
Долго искал блог на подобную тематику и наконец нашёл. Удивительно что раньше я не знал о его существовании, ведь с давних пор занимался вещами такого рода. Порадовало, конечно, наличие полезной информации лично для меня и я абсолютно согласен со всеми остальными людьми, оставившие свои комментарии в данном блоге. Удобная навигация, думаю, также многих порадовало. Хотелось бы и себе замутить такой блог, да нет время, поэтому легче пользоваться этим блогом. Администратор блога – молодец. Так держать! Всё супер, с огромным уважением отношусь к людям, создающие блоги на такие тематики!

20.04.2020 in 17:32 Антонида:
слишком мило)))

23.04.2020 in 03:59 niorehosdo86:
Полностью разделяю Ваше мнение. Мне кажется это отличная идея. Я согласен с Вами.