Kinds of pain

Kinds of pain

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The abdomen has been bisected, trisected, and even divided into as many as 9 separate regions. The layers of the abdominal wall consist of the skin, superficial fascia, and muscles. The anatomic planes of the abdominal wall are made up of multiple muscular and fascial layers that interdigitate and unite to form a sturdy, protective musculofascial layer that protects the visceral organs and provides strength kinds of pain stability to the body's trunk.

The abdominal cavity is the largest hollow space in the body. The abdominal wall has few anatomic landmarks. The flat abdominal plane is broken up only by the costal margins, anterior superior iliac spines, and the umbilicus. Thus, many attempts have been made over the years to describe what surface anatomy cannot. The most common and widely accepted system for identification of the various regions of the abdomen is the simple division of the abdomen into 4 quadrants by a vertical and horizontal line bisecting the umbilicus and forming the right and left upper and lower quadrants (see the image below).

This is a term used to define the по этому адресу within the skin along kinds of pain the skin has the least flexibility and corresponds to the alignment of the collagen fibers within the dermis.

Across the superior half of the anterior abdominal skin, these lines are kinds of pain in a transverse direction. Toward the inferior half страница kinds of pain abdominal skin, kinds of pain lines begin to assume a slightly more oblique course in an inferior medial direction toward the groin, paralleling the inguinal crease.

The abdominal skin is innervated in a segmental pattern by the anterior rami of the T7-L1 thoracoabdominal nerves. It consists of connective tissue that contains a variable amount of fat. This layer can vary in thickness from less than 1 cm to greater than 15 cm, depending on a person's body habitus. Superior to the umbilicus, the superficial fascia consists of a single layer. Inferior to the umbilicus, it splits into 2 layers. The more superficial and fatty layer is the Camper fascia.

The deeper, more fibrous layer is the Scarpa fascia. The Scarpa fascia contains very little fat and is continuous with both the superficial fascia of the thigh known as the fascia lata and the superficial fascia of the perineum known as the Colles fascia. The abdominal wall is composed of 5 paired muscles: 2 vertical muscles (the rectus abdominis and the pyramidalis) and 3 layered, flat muscles (the external abdominal oblique, the internal abdominal oblique, and the transversus abdominis muscles).

These muscles and their fascial attachments interdigitate and unite to form a sturdy, protective kinds of pain layer that gives strength and support to the anterolateral abdominal wall (see the images below). The external abdominal oblique muscle is the largest and most superficial of the 3 paired, flat abdominal muscles. It arises from the lower 8 ribs and interdigitations kinds of pain the serratus anterior muscle.

As the external abdominal oblique courses in an inferior medial direction, its muscle fibers change from thick muscle to a fibrous aponeurosis that inserts medially in the linea alba. Inferiorly, the external abdominal oblique aponeurosis folds back on itself to form the inguinal ligament between the anterior superior iliac spine and the pubic tubercle before inserting onto the pubic tubercle and the anterior half of the iliac crest.

Just medial to its insertion on the pubic tubercle, the aponeurosis divides kinds of pain forms the superficial (or external) inguinal ring. It originates broadly from the anterior portion of the iliac crest, lateral half of the inguinal ligament, and thoracolumbar fascia. The internal abdominal oblique kinds of pain on the inferior border of the 10th-12th ribs, kinds of pain linea alba, and the kinds of pain crest via the conjoint tendon.

The muscle fibers of the internal abdominal oblique course upward in a superomedial orientation, perpendicular to the muscle fibers of the external abdominal oblique. Like the external abdominal oblique, the internal abdominal oblique forms a broad aponeurosis that fuses into the midline and contributes durolane the rectus sheath.

Superior to the arcuate line (see the image below), the internal abdominal oblique aponeurosis splits anteriorly and posteriorly to enclose the rectus muscle and helps form the rectus sheath. However, inferior to the arcuate line, the internal abdominal oblique aponeurosis does not split and only passes anterior to the rectus muscle as part kinds of pain the anterior rectus sheath.

Kinds of pain inferior aponeurotic fibers of the internal abdominal oblique muscle course over the spermatic cord, through the inguinal canal, and the medial fibers fuse with the aponeurosis kinds of pain the transversus abdominis muscle to form the conjoint tendon. Of note, all the neurovascular structures supplying the abdominal muscles run in the plane between the internal abdominal oblique muscle and the transversus abdominis muscle, except for the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves.

Initially, kinds of pain lie on the anterior surface of the quadratus lumborum, then pass laterally into the plane between the transversus abdominis and the internal abdominal oblique. Above the основываясь на этих данных superior iliac spine, they penetrate the kinds of pain abdominal oblique to run between this muscle and the aponeurosis of the external abdominal oblique muscle. The transversus abdominis dsm 5 personality disorders is the deepest of the 3 paired, flat abdominal muscles.

As with the other flat muscles, the transversus abdominis forms a broad aponeurosis that helps make up the rectus sheath before it fuses in the midline to the linea alba.

Above the arcuate line, the transversus abdominis aponeurosis contributes to the posterior rectus sheath. Below the arcuate line, it is fused with the other flat muscles as the anterior rectus sheath. These fibers curve in an inferomedial direction to unite with продолжить чтение aponeurosis of internal abdominal oblique to form the conjoint tendon, which attaches onto the pubic crest and the pectineal (Cooper) ligament.



08.03.2020 in 08:31 dilodega:
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08.03.2020 in 09:37 puncparlage:
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