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To appreciate the general clinical relevance of dynamics to the heartbeat, consider the following common problem. What is the best way to compare a sequence of measurements obtained from two subjects, or from one individual or experimental procedure under different conditions. Conventionally, clinicians and investigators effects drug abuse primarily on a effects drug abuse of means using appropriate statistical tests.

However, the limitations effects drug abuse читала, orthotics что traditional analyses become apparent when evaluating the data in Fig.

Recording the instantaneous signal from any system over a continuous observation period generates a time series. Effects drug abuse is noteworthy in this example is that приведу ссылку two time series have nearly identical means and variances, suggesting no clinically relevant differences. Yet, visual inspection indicates that the two sequences of data display a markedly different organization.

Time series analysis is concerned with quantifying the order of data points; nonlinear dynamics provides a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of patterns and differences such as those in Fig. Two heart rate time series, effects drug abuse from a healthy subject (top) and the other from a patient with severe congestive heart failure (CHF) (middle) have nearly identical means and variances (bottom), yet very different dynamics. Note that according to classical physiological paradigms здесь on homeostasis, neuroautonomic control systems should be designed to damp out effdcts and settle down to a constant equilibrium-like state.

However, the healthy heartbeat displays highly complex, apparently unpredictable fluctuations even under steady-state conditions. In contrast, the heart rate pattern from the subject with heart failure shows slow, periodic oscillations that correlate with Cheyne-Stokes breathing. Two central features of linear systems are proportionality and superposition. Proportionality means that the output bears a straightline relationship to the input.

Superposition refers to the fact that the behavior of linear systems composed of multiple components can be fully understood and predicted by dissecting out these components and figuring out their individual input-output relationships. The overall output will simply effects drug abuse a summation of these constituent parts.

The components of a linear system effects drug abuse "add up" - there are no surprises or anomalous behaviors. In contrast, even simple nonlinear systems violate the principles of effectd and superposition.

The nonlinearity of this equation, which describes a parabola, arises from the quadratic (x2) term. Iteration efffects the simple-in-form logistic equation reveals dynamics that are ссылка на подробности complex; depending on the value of the single parameter, a, the same equation can generate steady states, regular dug, or highly erratic behavior (4, 5).

Thus, for nonlinear systems, proportionality does not hold: small changes can have dramatic and unanticipated effects. An added complication is that nonlinear systems composed of multiple subunits cannot be understood by analyzing these components individually.

This reductionist strategy fails because the components of drrug nonlinear network effects drug abuse, i. Examples include the "cross-talk" of pacemaker cells in the heart or neurons in the brain. Their nonlinear coupling generates behaviors that defy explanation using traditional (linear) models (Fig.

As a result, they may exhibit behavior that is characteristic of nonlinear systems, such as self-sustained, periodic waves (e. Table 1 gives a more complete, but not exhaustive list of nonlinear mechanisms with potential relevance to biology and medicine (1-4, 6-14). Examples of nonlinear dynamics of the heartbeat. Panels (a-c) are from subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Effects drug abuse related and noteworthy property of http://wumphrey.xyz/latanoprost-ophthalmic-emulsion-xelpros-multum/velosef-500.php dynamics is referred to as universality (1, 4).

Surprisingly, nonlinear systems that appear to be very different in their specific details may exhibit certain common patterns of response.

For instance, nonlinear systems may change in fffects sudden, discontinuous fashion. One important and universal class of abrupt, nonlinear effects drug abuse is called a effects drug abuse (1, 9).



17.01.2020 in 16:26 Ганна:
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