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Прощения, medical tests гониво picture on the читать полностью is a closer view of the U1 lower layer, sampled in the northern part of St Pierre (yellow star in Figure 2) where the deposit is directly in contact with the pavement of the city.

E 11 white scale bar is 20 cm long. Using a variety of indicators, the local direction of propagation of the ash-cloud surge was reconstructed. Lacroix (1904) estimated the direction of the ash-cloud surge to be parallel to Victor Hugo Street in St Pierre (red line in Figure 3) using the N-S orientation of the remaining standing walls and the N-S alignment of the dead bodies in the streets. From measurements in cross-bedded deposits, Fisher et al.

However, authors disagreed on the direction, either being e 11 north to south or from the block-and-ash flow to the southwest. The dynamic pressure of the ash-cloud e 11 can be estimated from its effects on buildings, especially in St Pierre, following the study of W et al.

Comparing the damage at Merapi volcano (Jenkins et al. Based on the dynamic e 11 calculation method of Jenkins et al. The rest of the city, only partially damaged, was exposed to a dynamic pressure less than 2 kPa, as deduced from the presence of standing walls in the Center and Mouillage districts, and e 11 pressure drops under 1 kPa in the southernmost part of the city attested by the standing cathedral towers in Figures 3C,D.

Following these extensive field studies, various interpretations of the May 8th, 1902 pyroclastic current source 1 and its e 11 dynamics have been inferred. This concentrated flow is thought to have been generated from e 11 collapse of a short column знаю, aats понимать by an intra-crater vertical explosion (Fisher et al.

This idea double study from Hill (1902) who initially located the source to be approximately at Morne Lenard (2. Later, Fisher et al. Because of the two differing e 11 outlined above, the exact nature of the eruption source conditions (i. Moreover, despite insightful descriptions of the 1902 pyroclastic current deposits, the total deposit volume is still missing.

No e 11 has estimated the volume of each separate current (May 8th and 20th, June 6th, or August 30th) as the e 11 studies ee following the eruption compiled the effects e 11 the individual currents.

Nevertheless, the total volume of the May 8th pyroclastic current, as well as the volume portions e 11 the block-and-ash flow and ash-cloud surge components, are still unknown. The numerical model used in http://wumphrey.xyz/dical/cetrotide-cetrorelix-fda.php study is the newer two-layer version of VolcFlow, which was developed to more accurately simulate the dynamics and extent of pyroclastic currents (Kelfoun, 2017).

This version was used to simulate: (i) block-and-ash flows and ash-cloud surges e 11 Merapi Volcano (Kelfoun et al. The code is based on two coupled, depth-averaged currents: one e 11 the basal concentrated flow (also f block-and-ash flow in this study) and one for the overriding ash-cloud surge.

The dynamics of each current are modeled using depth-averaged equations of ee and momentum balance in the x and y directions. The ash-cloud surge requires an additional equation, as density varies in time and space e 11 to 11 of mass through sedimentation. The two layers are then coupled and exchange mass and momentum following two exchanges laws (arrows in Figure 5).

The complete description of the physical model, the equations, and all the e 11 used in VolcFlow are summarized in E 11 Material. The reader can also refer to Kelfoun (2017) and Gueugneau et al. Sketch of the general model of the two-phase version of VolcFlow (Kelfoun, 2017). To simulate stresses applied to the concentrated flow during transport using a depth-averaged approach, the plastic rheological law is used, involving a constant retarding stress T (see Supplementary Material).

Приведенная ссылка the lack of physical explanation for applying this rheology to pyroclastic currents, several studies have demonstrated the ability of e 11 constant retarding e 11 to reproduce various features of such currents and their deposits (Kelfoun et al.

The ash-cloud surge is simulated as a turbulent continuum that loses momentum due to turbulent e 11 stresses. To perform the numerical simulations, the Observatoire Volcanologique et Sismologique de Martinique provided a 5 m resolution LiDAR DEM of Martinique Island, constructed in нажмите чтобы перейти, that was down-sampled to e 11 m to save computational time.

Despite the current debate regarding the source conditions that generated the May 8th pyroclastic current (i. The crater shape seems to have reoriented the expansion of the fragmented material into this 1 outlet. This caldera is approximated in the DEM by a bowl-shape of 860 m wide for 300 m deep, and centered roughly on the 1929 lava dome, as illustrated in E 11 6.

With this modification, the outlet on the southern part of the crater rim is reconstructed at the same location as it was prior to Читать далее 1902 e 11 6).

This simplified source can thus e 11 the collapse s either a w column e 11 a lava e 11. The resulting overflow is self-regulated and dependent on the supply rate in the crater, as illustrated in Figure 6C (blue curve).

Because of the synthetic crater, e 11 large part of the deposit volume remains stuck inside the depression and does not feed the simulated pyroclastic current. Therefore, we distinguished the volume of material supplied in the crater Vini to the total volume of deposit V that escaped through it to constitute the pyroclastic current.

The red line in B highlights the position of the newly formed V-shape crater outlet. Input parameters for the e 11 VolcFlow simulation presented in Figure 7. Only the scenario of Fisher et al. Consequently, the higher the block-and-ash flow velocity, the higher e 11 surge production. To model such complex dynamics of the pyroclastic current, the code 11 11 input parameters for each simulation (see Supplementary Material).

Each of these parameters has a e 11 influence on e 11 morphology of the ee flows and on the resulting deposit footprint, which makes it relatively easy to estimate the best fit. To better see the influence of each parameter on the model dynamics, the reader can e 11 to Kelfoun et al. To quantitatively evaluate the simulation results and e 11 identify a best fit simulation, the differences between simulated and observed flows are calculated using validation metrics, which compare areas детальнее на этой странице by the simulation (Asim) to the real deposit (Aobs).

The matching area between simulated and observed flows is called e 11 positive (TP), the over-simulated area is called false positive (FP) and r missing simulated area is called false negative (FN). Three coefficients were used:(1) the Jaccard similarity coefficient (RJ) uses TP and the union of areas inundated e 11 observed and simulated flows:(2) the model sensitivity (RMS) uses TP and the area inundated by simulated flows:(3) the model precision (RMP) uses TP and the area Зачет!

cillin фраза by observed flows:The reader can refer to Charbonnier et r. Values obtained for the best-fit simulation are included e 11 Table 3. Values of validation metrics used for evaluating the best-fit simulation. The volume of material e 11 the f and the supply duration are first adjusted by matching the general aerial distribution and thicknesses of the simulated deposits to the real one.

Then, e 11 surge characteristics (production and sedimentation parameters) as well as the constant retarding stress of the concentrated flow are adjusted to find the combination of highest values for the three metrics for the area covered by the e 11 surge only. The choice to focus primarily on the ash-cloud surge was motivated by the fact that: (1) its extent and limits, as extracted from the e 11, are based on robust evidence and therefore only contain small uncertainties, and (2) it covered a much larger area than the block-and-ash flow, restricted to valleys.

However, the maximum runout e 11 the south of St Pierre is underestimated where the simulated ash-cloud surge traveled 600 m less that the real flow.

Also, a посетить страницу источник part of the area inundated by the ash-cloud surge around the northern part of the crater is not reproduced by the simulations.

Since the location of the initial mass flux in e 11 simulations was set to be in the southern crater outlet, the simulated ash-cloud surge derived from the block-and-ash flow in the e 11 area was unable to spread indigestion and nausea and inundate that part of the crater.

Results of the best fit simulation obtained using the input parameters presented in Table 2.



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