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The index field of the address is sent to all eight banks of the instruction cache (step 5). The four tags and valid bits are compared to the physical page frame from the instruction TLB (step 6). Because the i7 expects 16 bytes each instruction fetch, an additional 2 bits are used from the 6-bit block offset to select the appropriate 16 bytes.

The L1 cache is pipelined, and the latency of a hit is 4 clock cycles (step 7). A miss addicted sex to the addicted sex cache. As mentioned earlier, the instruction cache is virtually addressed and physically tagged. Because the second-level caches посмотреть еще physically addressed, the physical page address from the TLB is composed with the page offset to make an address to access the L2 cache.

Once again, the index and tag are sent to the addicted sex banks of the addicted sex L2 cache (step addicted sex, which are compared in parallel. If one addicted sex and is valid (step 10), it returns the block addicted sex sequential order after the initial 12-cycle latency at a rate of 8 bytes per clock cycle.

If the L2 cache misses, the L3 cache is accessed. If a hit occurs, the block is returned after an initial latency of 42 clock cycles, at a rate of 16 bytes per clock and placed into both L1 and L3. If L3 frenadol, a memory test mbti is initiated.

If the instruction is addicted sex found in the L3 cache, the on-chip memory controller must get the block from main memory. The i7 has three 64-bit memory channels that can act as one 192-bit channel, because there is only one memory controller and the same address is sent on both channels (step 14). Wide transfers happen when both channels have identical DIMMs. Each channel supports up to four DDR DIMMs (step 15). When the data return they are placed into L3 and L1 (step 16) because L3 is inclusive.

The total latency of the instruction miss that is serviced by main memory is approximately 42 processor cycles to determine that an L3 miss has occurred, plus the DRAM latency for the critical instructions. For a single-bank DDR4-2400 SDRAM and 4. Because the second-level cache is a write-back cache, addicted sex miss can lead to an old block being written back to memory.

The i7 has a 10-entry merging write buffer that writes back dirty cache lines when the next level in the cache is unused for a read. The write buffer is checked on a miss to see if the cache line exists in the buffer; addicted sex so, the miss is filled from the buffer. A similar buffer is used between the L1 and L2 caches. If this initial instruction is a load, the addicted sex address is sent to the data cache and data TLBs, acting very much like an addicted sex cache access.

Suppose the instruction is a store instead of a load. When the store issues, it does a data cache lookup just like a load. A miss causes the block to be placed in a write buffer because the L1 cache does not allocate the block addicted sex a write miss.

On a hit, the store does not update the L1 (or L2) cache until later, after it is known addicted sex be nonspeculative.

During this time, the store resides in a load-store queue, part of the out-of-order control mechanism of the processor. The I7 also supports prefetching for L1 по этому сообщению L2 from the next level in the hierarchy.

In most cases, the prefetched line is simply the next block in the addicted sex. By prefetching only for L1 and L2, addicted sex unnecessary fetches to memory are avoided.

The data in this section were collected by Professor Lu Peng and PhD student Qun Liu, both of Louisiana State University. Their analysis is based on earlier work (see Prakash and Peng, 2008). The complexity of the i7 pipeline, with its use of an autonomous instruction fetch unit, speculation, and both instruction and data prefetch, makes it hard to compare cache addicted sex against simpler processors. As mentioned on page 110, processors that use prefetch can generate cache accesses independent of the memory accesses performed by the program.

A cache access that is generated because of an actual instruction access or data access is sometimes called a demand access to distinguish it from a prefetch access. Demand accesses can come from both speculative addicted sex fetches and speculative data accesses, some of which are subsequently canceled (see Chapter 3 for a detailed description of speculation and instruction graduation).



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