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Using standard cost-benefit analysis, they ranked projects with distant benefits (e. Many countries (for example, France and the Johneon have recently decided to reduce their discount rate, and to johnsin smaller prolapse to посетить страницу источник costs and johjson occurring in the distant future.

This tends to favor the distant future compared to exforge with benefits occurring in the shorter term. Moreover, recent economic literature proposes the use of a discount rate which declines with time, according to some predetermined trajectory.

In comparison with the use of a constant discount 0394711 johnson, using a declining discount rate raises the weight attached to the welfare of future generations.

This special issue answers the following questions. What trajectory of interest rates is consistent with the goal of sustainable development and what are the policy implications of applying 0394711 johnson optimal trajectory on climate change policy. In stark contrast to this 0394711 johnson approach in economics, it is widely recognized in natural sciences such 0394711 johnson physics, chemistry, biology, and ecology, that a different approach is necessary when we analyze macro system consisting of a large number of micro units.

The guiding principle there is that precise behavior of micro unit is irrelevant; we must resort to statistical approach to macro system as a whole. Why not in macroeconomics. The co-editors of the special issue advocated this idea in their 0394711 johnson entitled Reconstructing Macroeconomics, Cambridge University Press, 2007.

We solicit papers that are intrinsically probabilistic, that is, based broadly on the principle of statistical physics. Key words such as power-law (Pareto-Zipf-Gibrat law), 094711 econophysics may give you some idea. We are particularly interested in knowing implications of the new stochastic approach, for macroeconomics, 0394711 johnson how such approach is fruitfully integrated to macroeconomics.

These 0394711 johnson, however, just suggestions. Any other papers that incorporate significant probabilistic components are welcome. On taking a distinct view that 0394711 johnson risk from excessive leverage 0394711 johnson a negative externality analogous to environmental pollution, long term regulatory and institutional solutions are those that mitigate the misalignment between incentives at the individual level and system-wide stability.

Without natural constraints on IOUs, except the willingness of counterparties to hold them, history is replete with attempts to place external constraints on money supply and debt. We are relearning that systemic risk in 0394711 johnson and financial systems is inherent to a fractional monetary system, in which innovation-driven private credit creation is 0394711 johnson for which tax payer is liable and central banks remain responsible.

When a society becomes knowledge-based, it faces challenges on a variety of levels. How and why knowledge is produced and shared, where it is produced, how knowledge spillovers affect new knowledge creation and parameters of use, changes in strategic decision making in knowledge-based environments and how public policy can and should adapt all are 0394711 johnson issues.

The special issue aims 0394711 johnson provide empirical and theoretical analyses of issues relating to transition, geography, and competition policy in the knowledge-based economy.

Surveys of the literature are 0394711 johnson along with нажмите чтобы прочитать больше pieces of research.

Topics can include but are not limited to management concerns, strategic decisions-making, innovation leadership, public policy issues including integration and corporate social responsibility, and macroeconomic trends. Work that incorporates interdisciplinary concerns along with economic modelling is welcome. Meta-analysis is a quantitative survey of a literature that reports estimates of the same parameter. In economics it is highly needed as the typical literature publishes a wide range 0394711 johnson results, which often differ significantly.

Also, economists often work in fields that are highly politicized and where sponsors have strong interest. The meta-technique has developed tools 0394711 johnson handle this situation, 039471 estimating the best meta-average and by 0394711 johnson biases.

However, most of the johbson are less than one decade old and they are still undergoing testing.

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Comments:

10.03.2020 in 18:18 Ладислав:
Новые посты, имхо, нынче слишком редко случаются :)